Thursday, May 30, 2013

Third Person (Trinity Sunday, 2013-05-26)

This is my homily, Trinity Sunday  May 26 2013, Pentecost.   I am a Catholic chaplain at  Fairleigh Dickinson University (FDU, Teaneck),   FDU Newman Catholic Association,  New Jersey City University (NJCU) in Jersey City.  At FDU, Sunday Evening Mass 5:00 pm/7:00 pm celebrated during Fall and Spring semester  at  FDU University Interfaith Chapel, 842 River Road, Teaneck, NJ.

** We will resume Sunday Mass on August 25, 2013 @ 5:00 pm  at the FDU Chapel, Teaneck. ***

[__01__]        Imagine that you or I were to overhear our name.  Or, imagine that you or I were to walk into a room at the moment our name is mentioned.

In some cases, we might be tempted to pause – to eavesdrop – to hear what is being said about about us, or assumed about us.

In such a case, someone would be speaking about you or me in the third person.

“Third person” also describes the perspective taken by an author of fiction or non-fiction.

For example, one of this summer’s big Hollywood movies is The Great Gatsby.

This is a story told in the third person by Nick Carraway, a neighbor and someone of more modest means than the very wealthy Jay Gatsby.

Nick describes his own small house and the Gatsby’s large house on the right side of his….–

My house was … only fifty yards from the Sound. The [house] on my right was … Gatsby’s mansion…. [with a swimming pool, more than forty acres of lawn, and a garden.]  My own house was an eyesore, but it was a small eyesore, and it had been overlooked [by real estate developers], so I had a view of the water, a partial view of my neighbor’s lawn, and the consoling proximity of millionaires – all for eighty dollars a month. ”[1]

Such is the third-person viewpoint of Nick Carraway, the narrator.  This is a third-person viewpoint on Gatsby’s lawn, wealth, ambition,  and his parties.

Gatsby does not tell the story; Nick tells the story. And, in Fitzgerald’s novel – or the movie – this narration is an important technique.

After all, the identity – and history - of the title character - Gatsby - is mysterious.  In the third person, talking about Gatsby … the third-person narrator can reveal the information with subtlety and slowness.

[__02__]     This Sunday,   we observe Trinity Sunday, recalling that Jesus sends the Holy Spirit.

The Holy Spirit is the third person of the trinity. And, the Holy Spirit reveals the truth of Christ and the Gospel.

In the Gospel, Jesus said to his disciples at the Last Supper and to us, “I have much more to tell you, but you cannot bear it now. But when he comes, the Spirit of Truth will tell you.”  (John 16:___)

While concluding 3 years of teaching at the Last Supper, Jesus indicates the disciples are not quite ready to graduate or to be certified.

Their “credentials” will be acquired gradually over time.

Also, the Gospel will continue to unfold – more pages will be written – more chapters will be published – after the first Good Friday and Easter Sunday.

There will be some Third-Person intervention, some information provided by the Third Person of the Trinity.

[__03__]      The Holy Spirit will reveal, will motivate the Apostles to leave their locked hiding place, to go to Jerusalem and  beyond to tell the Good News

But, we might also ask – is the Holy Spirit simply a narrator ?  simply a source of information ?

[__04__]        In the example of  F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel, Nick Carraway – the narrator is important.    

Yet, we could imagine that there are other ways that the story could have been told or revealed. The narrator, in a fictional book, is an option, a technique.

The third-person narrator could, in theory, be eliminated. We might have a different series of events. But, we could still have the same ending.

[__05__]        The Good News of our faith is that the “third person” – the Holy Spirit – is essential.

[__06__]        Do we hear our name called by others, do we sometimes wonder what others are saying about us? Thinking about us?
Do we hear ourselves described in the third person, or characterized or judged by others in the third person?

Yes, and, this can make us – naturally – uncomfortable.

[__07__]   Are we not also concerned about what other people tell us to do, invite us to do?

Sometimes, we receive good advice, sometimes, we receive bad advice …in the first person.

[__08__]     The Holy Spirit is our gift, our guide, to the continuation of the Good News, the pages of the Gospel in our own lives.

In both fiction and non-fiction, the “third-person” narrator only tells us what others have done or not done.

But, in our faith, the Holy Spirit is the third person reminding us what God has done, has created and that Jesus suffered and died for our sins.

The Holy Spirit is also asking what you and I will do, with God’s help, in own actions, our own first-person story.    [__fin__]       

[1] F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby, Ch. 1,  p. 5.  Published by Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1925

Monday, May 20, 2013

“Courage, Fear, Pentecost” (2013-05-19)

This is my homily, Sunday  May 19, 2013, Pentecost.   I am a Catholic chaplain at  Fairleigh Dickinson University (FDU, Teaneck),   FDU Newman Catholic Association,  New Jersey City University (NJCU) in Jersey City.  At FDU, Sunday Evening Mass 5:00 pm/7:00 pm celebrated during Fall and Spring semester  at  FDU University Interfaith Chapel, 842 River Road, Teaneck, NJ.

** We will resume Sunday Mass on August 25, 2013 @ 5:00 pm ***

TITLE: “Courage, Fear, Pentecost”

[__01__]        This Sunday, Pentecost, we observe the transformation, the conversion of the disciples from …

·         A secret hideaway (in the upper room of the last supper / Last Supper)
·         Uncertainty and mistrust to … determination.

This transformation  is precisely what we would expect. On the one hand, one of the gifts of the Holy Spirit is courage – or fortitude.

We sing of this new strength at Easter Sunday – the strife is o’er the battle done

The strife is o’er, the battle done;
The victory of life is won;
The song of triumph has begun: Alleluia!

A gift of the Holy Spirit is courage/fortitude.

[__02__]       On the other hand, one of the gifts of the Holy Spirit is … also fear. Of course, we recall that this is not Hollywood-suspense, PG-13 fear.  Rather this is fear – or awe – in the sight and presence of God.

This is often summarize as “fear of the Lord.”

God is all-powerful, all-knowing, all-present …

·         Omnipotent
·         Omnipresent
·         Omniscient

To the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, you and I are indebted for our lives.

Should we, then, “fear” the Lord in the same way we would fear an enemy, a creditor, the quarterly announcement of inflation or unemployment?

Should we fear God’s strength?

[__03__]      What is the natural, logical response to fear?

In 1932,  a Harvard physician – Walter Cannon – described the psychological and physical response to fear with these 2 words  - FIGHT … or FLIGHT…

In other words, if I were to experience fear – or trepidation, anxiety – I would do one of two things – fight (struggle) … or flee (escape… get out of town).

In this regard, we would often equate fighting with courage or bravery; and, fleeing, cowardice or the opposite of bravery.

Fighting would equal fidelity; and, fleeing, unfaithfulness.

[__04__]        I would like to suggest that fear – or fear of the Lord – is a grace, a blessing which touches us in our consciences.

It is a conscious fear.   our Lord and Savior has given us examples of the fear of the Lord in his life and teaching. And, in fact, sometimes, we follow this grace – and virtue of fearing God – by fighting; sometimes, by fleeing.

This gift of the Holy Spirit could be present in either case.

For example --

[__05__]       That is, fear of the Lord can help us to –

·         FIGHT and STRUGGLE for justice, goodness, virtue ....  AND…  FLEE, ESCAPE from what is unjust, what is evil, what is not of God.
[__06__]       For example,      Jesus tells the parable of the Human Resource-Employee  Evaluation of the 2 sons. 

The sons work in the family business and vineyard.   One day, one son says, I will go to work in the vineyard, but never shows up, never punches in, zero hours.

The second son, on the other hand, refuses the idea of working, yet changes his mind, punches in, does a full day’s work.

Could we not, perhaps, say that both sons are equally anxious – fearful – about the work to be done?

[__06.1__]     What happens to you and to me when we have a very difficult final exam, the S.A.T., or some project to complete? Or if we were to have a difficult family crisis to manage or navigate?

Are not tempted to talk about all the work., but never do anything?

The second son, meanwhile, is quite honest and candid about his intentions.  Meanwhile, he is examining his conscience, repenting of his ways. And, the 2nd son is staying to fight, to struggle.

“Fight” is not the only response to fear. Sometimes we are called to escape, to flee.

[__07__]    Consider a different parable, the parable of the Prodigal Son. In this case, the son leaves the family behind, takes his inheritance in one lump-sum signing bonus. 

He then, lives a life of luxury and excess, until he has spent everything.   Far from home, in another country, he is poor, alone, hungry.

Then, the Prodigal Son has a turning point, based at least partly on FEAR…

How many of my father’s hired workers have more than enough food to eat, but here am I, dying from hunger.”  (Luke 15:17)

From this hunger – fear – come resolution and determination … to escape, to flee the current situation of harm.

Fear enables the Prodigal Son to turn away from what is bad and to turn toward the good.

[__08__]     When we listen to the Holy Spirit, we avoid things that are harmful out of fear, fear that we could harm –

·         Ourselves
·         Our family
·         Our community

Would we not avoid certain substances or behaviors, fearing that we could lose control?

In this regard, “fear” touches our conscience. 

Fear of what is bad also motivates us to run or return home toward what is good.

[__09__]        Fear leads to fight or flight.

In the short term, we might experience fear, even fear of the Lord as a restriction, or a confinement

But, in the long run, this fear – through the Holy Spirit also helps us to grow in courage and, most importantly, to be free, liberated.  [__fin__]    

Sunday, May 12, 2013

Informer / Holy Spirit (2013-05-12)

This is my homily, Sunday  May 12, 2013.  I am a Catholic chaplain at  Fairleigh Dickinson University (FDU, Teaneck),   FDU Newman Catholic Association,  New Jersey City University (NJCU) in Jersey City.  At FDU, Sunday Evening Mass 5:00 pm/7:00 pm celebrated during Fall and Spring semester  at  FDU University Interfaith Chapel, 842 River Road, Teaneck, NJ.

** This is our final Sunday Mass of Spring 2013. We will resume Sunday August 25, 2013 @ 5:00 pm ***

Acts 7:55-60 | Psalm 97 | Revelation 22:12-14, 16-17, 20 | John 17:20-26

Bibliography: John Henry Newman, “Sermon 15, Religious Faith Rational”,  Parochial and Plain Sermons Book 1   (1891),  San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1997. Pages 123-127.

[__01__]        In this Gospel, Jesus is praying for his disciples at the Last Supper. They are about to be sent out on mission.

[__02__]        The upcoming final examinations.  In order to prepare ourselves for these examinations, we would have 2 general paths to take.   And, we probably have to go down both paths… that is…  (A) Re-read the material in textbooks, articles  AND (B) re-read / review our notes.

Both are important. But, are not using our notebook – our teacher’s guidance – as a way to know what would be most important in the textbook, the article, the equation or experiment.

[__02__]     Could we not say the same is true in any of our spiritual decisions, our moral decisions… our relationships as well?

That is, there is information that we learn on our own….  And there is information that we have written down, in our notebooks, learned from others.

[__03__]    I make this distinction – in the academics of Becton, Dickinson ..and Fairleigh Dickinson as an example.

In a sermon about religious faith, Cardinal Newman / Blessed John Henry Newman reminds us that much our everyday – and intellectual – knowledge is based on what we learn from others.

That is, we do not simply learn everything based on our own effort, cognition, and completion of the syllabus. We learn also from what others tell us.  We learn from what we hear from another person.

[__04__]     And, this telling – and hearing – is the basis of the early Church, the telling of the Good News. It remains the basis of our communion and worship today.

In this regard, Newman preaches that religion has a rational basis.  In other words, though we cannot prove the Trinity – as a geometric proof …. Nor can we prove the Resurrection with physical DNA … we have heard about these events – these facts from others. 

We have also learned these truths from those witnesses for whom their faith became, literally, a conviction…  a death sentence.  Many martyrs have died for our faith.

Throughout our lives, we learn to trust the the perceptions, the information which we gain from others.

That is, have we not, at times, put aside our own perception and information for information from another.

Often, this acceptance of another’s  viewpoint is based on trust and on love … and, we call this by different names … friendship, family, marriage.

We also consider this trust to be part of our faith and salvation.  We have been told….

[__05__]          The upcoming final examinations.  In order to prepare ourselves for these examinations, we would have 2 general paths to take.   And, we probably have to go down both paths… that is…
(a)   Re-read the material in textbooks, articles
And also…
(b)   Re-read / review our notes.

So, also in our spiritual decisions and moral decisions.  

Cardinal Newman considers our 5 senses to be similar to the books that we have bought or borrowed from the library.  That is, our senses – as the books – enable us to be independent, to think, to reason, to conclude.

Newman refers to the 5 senses as “infomers” or “informants.”

The “informants” present themselves to us as sight, sound, smell, touch, taste.

When we hear “informant”, we may immediately think “criminal”or “confidential”.

Let’s say confidential…

A detective will use multiple confidential informants to solve the case. And, we will also use multiple informants (both sight and sound) to ascertain something about a bright light or big noise.   

In the absence of some expert meteorologist to inform us… on radio/TV … our sense perception of thunder and lightning together tell us about the storm.

Then, after gaining this data, we might also tune in for more information, more advice.. evacuate?

[__06__]     Cardinal Newman is putting in a word for religious faith that is based both on what we can know – on our own – and what we are told from others. 

That is, our faith is based on what we learn – intellectually – and what we are taught … and write in our notebooks.

[__07__]     This is true in our faith and in our relationships…

We rely on our senses, our intelligence to tell us what to do.  But we also rely on others…

[__08__]        Often, for advice, we turn to our friends, our family, this is natural.

They know us, care for us, love us.

We turn in prayer also to the Father, to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit.  God loves us and cares for us.

This love enables us to trust the guidance of another.

[__09__]      In such a relationship of trust, we may hear what we do not want to hear, from an informer not currently on the payroll.

This is also the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit dwells in our hearts, informing our consciences. Yet, the Holy Spirit is also another person, a divine person. He is not on our payroll.

Jesus invites us to trust in the person of the Holy Spirit to be informed. The truth may be inconvenient … truth about our own words, actions, attitudes.

This is an act of trust.

[__10__]    Repentance – expressing sorrow – is also an act of trust, a an act of trust in the other person and in the Holy Spirit.

We may gain information contrary to what our paid informers – of sight and sound – are telling us.

[__11__]     Isn’t this trust also the goal in our relationships of family and of marriage? 

That is, we want unity, community, closeness.  But, we also want protection and love from someone with a greater vision, someone outside of myself.

Our mothers – whom we honor and pray for today – are also our first informers.

They are informers, sworn to protect us, to guide us.  And, they do so not simply by passing us information or raw data.

[__12__]    They protect us also by being our first translators, our first interpreters and giving our lives meaning and definition.

Our mothers teach us to trust our own perceptions and to trust in God.  Jesus also teaches us that God’s Holy Spirit is in our hearts as our guide toward justice and love.

Dying and rising to new life, Jesus also gives this trust new meaning. Our savior gives meaning to the surrender of his life to God’s will.   We learn, for example, that the weakness of God – on the cross – is greater than human strength.

We also learn – through his life and death – that all human life has meaning and is precious to God at all stages.

We cannot gather this information solely on our own.     

But, we can gain it through God’s help, through our families… and through trust in  the Holy Spirit, in every place and time.


Saturday, May 11, 2013

To Be Continued (Ascension, May 9, 2013)

This is my homily, Ascension Thursday May 9, 2013.  I am a Catholic chaplain at  Fairleigh Dickinson University (FDU, Teaneck),   FDU Newman Catholic Association,  New Jersey City University (NJCU) in Jersey City.  At FDU, Sunday Evening Mass 5:00 pm/7:00 pm celebrated during Fall and Spring semester  at  FDU University Interfaith Chapel, 842 River Road, Teaneck, NJ.

Ascension Thursday May 9, 2013   //  Acts 1:1-11; Ephesians 1:17-23;  Luke 24:46-53

[__01__]     To be continued.  To be continued, this is good news.

Luke the evangelist, the author of the Acts of the Apostles, continues the Good News of our salvation…. The Good News which had concluded with the Ascension of our Savior.

This Good News – the mission of the Apostles – continues in Part 2, “Acts of the Apostles.”

It is Good News to be continued.

[__02__]      Here at Bergen Catholic, we learn – through both our faith and our academics – that you and I are being continued.

We learn about our human potential –  in terms of academics, friendships, agility / competition, music, …

You and I are works in progress.

To be continued is Good News.

[__03__]     At times, we also find continuity – and consistency – to be a comfort and a motivation.

For example, consider what happens when we take an examination, a midterm …and we have to wait a while for the grade or the result. 

Instead of our life being a very smooth line … we become the discontinuous function… wondering what the grade is… and unwilling to learn MORE until we know what just happened on the midterm …and whether or not there will be extra points, a curve, etc.

Isn’t our life also made smoother and more continous through positive results?  If we were to win on the playing field, some of us would find it much easier to go to practice than if we had lost.

I want coach to tell me what I did well. We associate “continuity” with victory.

Also, the first disciples – witnessing the Passion of Good Friday would had some trouble connecting the dots to Easter  Sunday.  Thomas the Apostle, famously, wants physical proof.

The Resurrection does not seem possible. The disciples, at first, only see the discontinuity of Good Friday… rather than the  continuity of Easter  Sunday .

 [__04__]     Some of has have, of course, experienced, real and tragic physical disruption, defeat and discontinuity in our lives.

We experience this, for example, through the death of a loved one, the illness or crisis of a loved one -  child, mother, father, brother, sister, friend or family.

We share, then, in the doubts and disconnections of the early disciples.

We also feel disconnected – deprived – in our grief and mourning in such an experience of loss or death.

Similarly, physical separation may cause this.  We do not want to be away from loved ones.

[__05__]    The disciples – at the time of the Ascension – are also experiencing this disruption and some disconnection.

Jesus wants to heal this division, this disconnect, sending the Holy  Spirit. But, there will be some discontinuity.

There will be some disagreements among the disciples themselves about their mission.

[__06__]    To be continued – Good News, but challenging news

[__07__]    In the Ascension, our  Savior is teaching us and challenging us to recall that while death takes us from the earth – and from our families – death does not remove us from God’s presence.

Also, through the Ascension, Jesus reminds us that he is present to us in our difficulties.

This could be death or illness.

Also, this difficulty could be sinfulness, injustice, brokenness.   If we have sinned – or someone has sinned against us – we remain loved by God.

[__08__]      We were brought into this world by God’s love. And, we are sustained by God’s love.

[__09__]     When we confess our sins, equally, we are not simply learning what evil or injustice to avoid in the future.

Yes, we do learn this.

But, we also learn how to be free – how to follow God’s will – and to desire God’s will – joyfully … even as we gradually grow closer to him. We are works in progress, growing and changing through God’s mercy.

 [__10__]     This is the Good News of the Resurrection, for you and me, to be continued.


Monday, May 6, 2013

Conversion / Lydia (rough draft) (2013-05-06)

6th week of Easter / MONDAY /  May 6, 2013  /   
Acts 16:11-15; Psalm 145;  John 15:26-16:4a

[__01--notes__]    VERY ROUGH DRAFT…  NOTES ONLY

·         1st century A.D. and the 21st century A.d.
·         Lydia is a dealer in purple cloth
·         Lydia’s customers would have been royalty.
·         Lydia is a “dealer” … a wholesaler? An economic force? Powerful?

[__02__]      21st century A.D. dealers/tailors serve the rich and famous with cloth –
·         Versace
·         Dior
·         Ralph Lauren
·         Donna Karan DKNY
·         Others ?

 [__03__]    Charitable activities
One would expect that Versace, Dior, RL, DK DKNY would be involved in charitable activities.

Such charity is, at least, good publicity, good for business, … good is the publicity gained from feeding and clothing the poor.

Lydia – the Donna Karan of northeastern Greece? Her act of charity – taking in Paul and Timothy (cf. Acts 16:1)

This act of charity is recorded – published in the Acts of the Apostles, Status update is positive for Lydia, Inc.

 [__04__]     What we are reading here, however, is not only about a business /change in profit or a tax-deductible contribution.

Rather, we reading about a change of heart, a reduction of Lydia’s wealth for spiritual gain.

Lydia has been baptized and we are told … so are all the members of her household.

Recall that Lydia is in charge … this household would include employees, servants.

They follow her example. 

Following Lydia’s example is everyone in the “studio” or “factory.”  They also receive baptism  / Christian initiation.

The example [+] or [-] of leaders is noticed ..and this will touch/influence the actions and consciences of others.

Then, after Lydia welcomes Paul and Timothy into her home, to stay..

The reason is because of her baptism, her awareness …of being part of the Church, part of the Body of Christ.

Lydia allows god to work through her actions..wealth … talent, and in her organization.

You and I are also changed miraculously when we allow God to work in and through us.. others will notice.

Sunday, May 5, 2013

Recall / The Holy Spirit (2013-05-05)

This is my homily, Sun. May 5, 2013.  I am a Catholic chaplain at  Fairleigh Dickinson University (FDU, Teaneck),   FDU Newman Catholic Association,  New Jersey City University (NJCU) in Jersey City.  At FDU, Sunday Evening Mass 5:00 pm/7:00 pm celebrated during Fall and Spring semester  at  FDU University Interfaith Chapel, 842 River Road, Teaneck, NJ.

5th Sunday Easter, May 5, 2013   
Readings:  Acts 15:1-2, 22-29 | Psalm 67 | Revelation 21:10-14, 22-23 | John 14:23-29

[__01__]    In the Gospel this Sunday, “RECALL” and “MEMORY” are the messages from our Savior to us and to his disciples.

“whoever loves me will keep my word”
“the Holy Spirit, the Advocate, will teach you”

Jesus speaks to his disciples about their “recall” and future memorization and test-taking strategies. This conversation takes place at the Last Supper – the night before Jesus’s own Good Friday final exam.

Jesus – the teacher – was saying that after his earthly life, after his death, resurrection, Ascension, I would remain with us but would not remain with us in physical form.

[__02__]     RECALL STRATEGY

In college, high school, in academic settings and also in professional settings, “recall” is important.  Remembering the method, following a method, improves the quality of a product and our work.

Memorization may also be necessary.

But, can you and I really hope to memorize every number, every date, every word, every historical fact?   Certainly not ..that is, we cannot simply memorize answers.

We are better off – better able to recall – when we become aware of what the questions are.

This alertness of mind is important outside the classroom too our family relationships, friendships, in marriage.

[__03__]     Even a student before the exam cannot hope to memorize all the answers. Rather, a student tries to prepare by knowing the information…and then, preparing by knowing what the questions are going to be.

In the recent movie, 42, the newly signed Brooklyn Dodgers player, Jackie Robinson has some difficulty … adjusting to life in major league baseball.    A Dodger executive gives him some advice about how to prepare for and handle the reporters, the press.  

At first, Jackie Robinson resists this advice, thinking he does not need to prepare for the reporters …he needs to prepare for the game on the diamond. The Dodgers executive tells him that he should regard these questions – some of which are racially charged, discriminatory, bigoted … the same way he regards a baseball he wants to contact with his bat.

That is, Jackie is told… remember you can swing better, when you see the ball coming in slow…and you want to see these questions “coming in slow” also.  That way, you can answer them with patience, dignity…

[__04__]     REPENTANCE --  Our repentance, confession also begins with questions, with the examination (test) of our conscience.     This test also requires courage, practice.

Yet, we grow in virtue and honesty as we continue to ask these questions of ourselves.

[__05__]    PRAYER / DISCERNMENT / DECISIONS --- We also learn – and we pray by asking questions.   We may ask questions about our own anxiety…our sorrow …. Even our bitterness.  We pray by asking.

Jesus encourages to ask… so that we can discover – with both our hearts and minds what is God’s will in our lives. We pray and we ask so that we will know what is truth and justice.

The Holy Spirit is our guide our teacher in this process.

[__06__]     A professor or teacher  - at in Becton or Dickinson or Robison Hall would wants to do more than leave her students with answers.  The teacher also wants to leave the student with questions.

Jesus imparts the the Holy Spirit so that we can apply the Lord’s own values to decisions we need to make – decisions that involve ….

·         CARE  OF  A LOVED ONE -  especially for someone in advanced age or illness.    When we care for someone in this way, we certainly improve our own memory – our own recall – about the dignity of a living person.

·         PEER PRESSURE -  sometimes, other people – our friends, classmates…will try to persuade us what the answer to our lives might be…. The answer in terms of convenience, comfort, popularity…wealth.   The Holy Spirit is given to us so that we can ask the questions about justice, honesty…. The questions which might seem unpopular.

Jesus gives us the Holy Spirit as a teacher… not a teacher with all the answers in a manual for us to search by the index or online.  Rather, the Holy Spirit is our teacher helping us to recall Christ is still here …and that we still have the need to ask … to seek first the Kingdom of God.   [__fin__]